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Как да изпълняваме 3D маневрите

 

You've heard about these new 3D maneuvers, maybe even seen some spectacular demonstrations, but if you're like most modelers you really don't have a clue what they're all about. Well, read on and we'll try to help de-mystify the 3D "magic."

So just what is 3D?

In simplest terms, it's maneuvers performed by an airplane that are not done in a normal airplane flight path. Airplanes that hover; descend nose high at 45-degrees; float along in level flight, hanging on the prop; or tumble tail-over-nose in a rapid flipping motion.

What makes a good 3D airplane?

When you combine these maneuvers together with other loops, rolls, snaps and spins, it seems like the aerobatic options are endless. But you can't do this with just any old aircraft. In many forms of modeling, you can put an average plane in the hands of an excellent pilot and you'll see superb maneuvers. 3D isn't one of them.

To fly 3D, you have to have a plane that's capable. What's capable? Well, it starts with having lots of pitch control. Elevators taking up 50% of horizontal stabilizer's surface is a start. (They need to move kind of like a barn door: 45° off neutral is good). The same control deflection applies, but to a lesser extent, with rudder and ailerons.

 

If you are a competent pilot who enjoys living life on the very edge of the envelope, then 3D is for you. Your plane is always just moments away from disaster. Spectators get thrills from near disasters, and so does the pilot! 3D flying is one near disaster after the next, with a crash inevitable with one slip of the finger, one burble of the engine, one wrong move, one mechanical failure, or one gust of wind. Not all 3D maneuvers are at just above stall speed, but all 3D put the plane at more risk than sequence flying. This is very difficult, and takes a special (meaning more expensive) aircraft and equipment to do it right. 

NOTE: If your plane is heavy (high wing loading) and it must dive to pick up speed before it can fly out of an aborted maneuver without snapping, then you have the wrong plane. Either lighten your plane or get a new plane. If not, you will be forced to fly too high to have fun or you will crash. If you have a 40% plane over 36 pounds or a 35% plane over 26 pounds, your plane is heavy, so be careful.

KEYS TO 3D FLYING
- The lower (lighter) the wing loading the better: lower stall speeds and better knife edge capability. The ability to fly away from a botched maneuver is important.
- The higher the power to weight ratio the better: blast out of trouble or jump out of a hover. 
- The more the control surfaces move the better: faster maneuvering.
- The larger the control surfaces the better: more control of the air.
- The more powerful the servos the better: to prevent flutter.
- Digital servos: precise motion throughout the range and tighter centers.
- The faster the servos the better: faster corrections.
- The larger the fuselage side area the better: better yaw control.
- The larger the size the plane the better: less sensitive.
- A computer radio: mix out quirks, switch rates easily using one flight condition switch.
- The correct amount of right thrust: the plane must go up straight in a hover. 
- Lots of money: buy the best, stretch the envelope, have a backup. 
- Nerves of steel: the lower the better.
- Bulletproof airframe: don't have a mechanical failure, especially servo linkages.
- Bulletproof engine: hovering on the deck has an unhappy ending if the engine quits.
- Rearward CG: flies inverted virtually hands off for better maneuverability.
- Extensive preflight: you can't afford a mechanical failure in the air which should have been caught on the ground.

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